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Wednesday, December 26, 2012

CSC413 TEXT


UNDERSTANDING FONTS AND TYPEFACES 
¢A ‘typeface’ is a family of graphic characters that usually includes many type sizes and styles.
¢A ‘font’ is a collection of characters of a single size and style belonging to a particular typeface family.
¢The study of fonts and typefaces includes the following:
Cases.
  
 Font styles include:
Boldface
Italic
Underlining
Outlining 
Font size is measured in points.
¢Character metrics are the general measurements applied to individual characters.
¢Kerning is the spacing between character pairs.
¢Leading is the space between lines.
 
¢A capitalized letter is referred to as 'uppercase', while a small letter is referred to as 'lowercase.‘
¢Placing an uppercase letter in the middle of a word is referred to as intercap.
Better recognize the words used for variables in programming
  
¢Serif is the little decoration at the end of a letter stroke.
¢Serif fonts are used for body text.
¢Sans (without) serif fonts do not have a serif at the end of a letter stroke.
¢These fonts are used for headlines and bold statements.
  
The text elements used in multimedia are:
Menus for navigation.
Interactive buttons.
Fields for reading.
HTML documents.
Symbols and icons.
 

¢Anti-aliased text must be used when a gentle and blended look for titles and headlines is needed.
¢Ideas and concepts can be highlighted by making the text bold or by emphasizing text.
¢A pleasant look can be created by experimenting with different font faces, sizes, leadings, and kerning.

MENUS FOR NAVIGATION
¢A user navigates through content using a menu.
¢A simple menu consists of a text list of topics.
INTERACTIVE BUTTONS 

¢A button is a clickable object that executes a command when activated.
¢Users can create their own buttons from bitmaps and graphics.
¢The design and labeling of the buttons should be treated as an industrial art project.

FIELDS FOR READING
¢Reading a hard copy is easier and faster than reading from the computer screen.  
¢A document can be printed in one of two orientations - portrait or landscape.  
¢The taller-than-wide orientation used for printing documents is called portrait.  
¢The wider-than-tall orientation that is normal to monitors is called landscape.


 ¢PostScript is a method of describing an image in terms of mathematical constructs. 
¢PostScript characters are scalable and can be drawn much faster. (compared to bitmap table) 
¢Adobe developed Adobe Type Manager for displaying PostScript fonts on both Macintosh and Windows.


¢Apple and Microsoft developed the TrueType methodology.

¢TrueType is a system of scalable outline fonts, and can draw characters at low resolution (72 dpi – 96 dpi)
¢The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is a 7-bit coding system.

¢The extended character set is commonly filled with ANSI standard characters.

¢The ISO-Latin-1 character set is used while programming the text of HTML pages.

¢Unicode is a 16-bit architecture for multilingual text and character encoding.

¢The shared symbols of each character set are unified into collections of symbols called scripts.

Mapping across platforms:

Fonts and characters are not cross-platform compatible.

They must be mapped to the other machine using font substitution.
 

 Hypertext is when words are keyed or indexed to other words.  The “text” part of this term represent the project’s content and meaning, rather then the graphical presentation.
Storyboarding : determining how a user will interact with and navigate through the content of a project
Authoring tools : these software tools are designed to managed individual multimedia elements and provide multimedia interaction 
Graphical User Interface (GUI) : the sum of what gets played back and how it is presented to the viewer  
Anti-aliased text must be used when a gentle and blended look for titles and headlines is needed. 
 
Ideas and concepts can be highlighted by making the text bold or by emphasizing
text. 
 
A pleasant look can be created by experimenting with different font faces, sizes,
leadings, and kerning.
 
The Font Wars

PostScriptTrueType
 
PostScript is a method of describing an image in terms of mathematical constructs
PostScript characters are scalable and can be drawn much faster. 
The two types of PostScript fonts are Type 3 and Type 1. 
Adobe developed Adobe Type Manager for displaying PostScript fonts on both 
Macintosh and Windows.
 
[TrueType]
Apple and Microsoft developed the TrueType methodology.
TrueType is a system of scalable outline fonts, and can draw characters at low resolution.
  
 [Character Sets]
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is a 7-bit coding system.
The extended character set is commonly filled with ANSI standard characters.
The ISO-Latin-1 character set is used while programming the text of HTML pages.
 
Unicode is a 16-bit architecture for multilingual text and character encoding.
The shared symbols of each character set are unified into collections of symbols called scripts.
Mapping across platforms:
Fonts and characters are not cross-platform compatible.
They must be mapped to the other machine using font substitution.
 
[Font Editing and Design Tools]
Macromedia Fontographer.
Creating attractive texts.
 
[Macromedia Fontographer]
Fontographer is a specialized graphics editor.
It is compatible with both Macintosh and Windows platform.
It can be used to develop PostScript, TrueType, and bitmapped fonts.
It can also modify existing typefaces and incorporate PostScript artwork.
 
[Creating Attractive Texts] 
Applications that are used to enhance texts and images include:
Adobe Photoshop
TypeStyler
COOL 3D
HotTEXT
TypeCaster
Hypertext is defined as the organized cross-linking of words, images, and other Web elements.
A system in which words are keyed or indexed to other words is referred to as a hypertext system.
A hypertext system enables the user to navigate through text in a non-linear way.
 
[Using Hypertext Systems]
Information management and hypertext programs present electronic text, images, and other elements in a database fashion.
Software robots visit Web pages and index entire Web sites.
Hypertext databases make use of proprietary indexing systems.
Server-based hypertext and database engines are widely available.
 
[Searching for Words]
Typical methods for word searching in hypermedia systems are:
Categorical search
Word relationship
Adjacency
Alternates
Association
Negation
Truncation
Intermediate words
Frequency
 
[Hypermedia Structures]
Links.
Nodes.
Anchors.
 
Navigating hypermedia structures.
Links are connections between conceptual elements.
Links are the navigation pathways and menus.
Nodes are accessible topics, documents, messages, and content elements.
Nodes and links form the backbone of a knowledge access system.
Anchor is defined as the reference from one document to another document,
image, sound, or file on the Web.
The source node linked to the anchor is referred to as a link anchor.
The destination node linked to the anchor is referred to as a link end.
 
[Navigating Hypermedia Structures]
The simplest way to navigate hypermedia structures is via buttons.
Location markers must be provided to make navigation user-friendly.
 
[Hypertext Tools]
Two functions common to most hypermedia text management systems are building (authoring) and reading.
The functions of ‘builder’ are:
Creating links.
Identifying nodes.
Generating an index of words.
 
Hypertext systems are used for:
Electronic publishing and reference works.
Technical documentation.
Educational courseware.
Interactive kiosks.
Electronic catalogs.

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